Research and references
We take pride in complete transparency of our products and are happy to share the research and papers that support our formulation process when manufacturing supplements.
The references below provide detailed reading for those who have an interest in equine science, research and academic studies.
For most of us, knowing that there is sound scientific evidence gives complete confidence in that what you are buying for your horses is not only safe, but is formulated professionally and at the correct levels to support your horse.
Boswellia is an established nutraceutical in the human market, predominantly used for its anti-inflammatory effects in Arthritis. Boswellia Serrata contains Boswellic acids which work many different inflammatory pathways including the Arachidonic inflammatory pathway. This is similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However instead of inhibiting COX enzymes, Boswellic acids influence the LOX pathway1. This method of action is known as COX-sparing and is favoured as it prevents complications such as gastro-intestinal irritation. Boswellia can be used on its own or in combination with other nutraceuticals. Recently, Boswellia extracts have been found to have a synergistic effect when used in combination with Curcumin2. The effects of Boswellia have not been tested in isolation in the horse. Doses used are extrapolated from trials in humans, and should be assessed in terms of their Boswellic acid content.
- Roy, N. et al. (2019) An Update on Pharmacological Potential of Boswellic Acids against Chronic Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. Sep; 20(17): 4101.
- Haroyan, A. et al. (2018) Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. Jan 9;18(1):7
An essential building block for proteoglycans which make up the non-structural component of cartilage. Glucosamine has been recognised as a beneficial nutraceutical for joint health in both horses and humans1 for many years. It has been shown to reduce inflammation and cartilage turnover2. Glucosamine and Chondroitin work synergistically to reduce inflammatory mediators in the joint as well as improving repair3. Beneficial levels of Glucosamine have been cited between 5-15g per daily serving for a 500kg horse.
- Nagaoka, I. et al. (2019) Chondroprotective action of glucosamine, a chitosan monomer, on the joint health of athletes. Int J Biol Macromol. Jul 1;132:795-800.
- Welch, C.A. et al. (2012) Plasma concentration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in horses after an oral dose. Journal of equine veterinary science, 32(1), pp.60-64.
- Leatherwood, J. et al. (2016) Influence of oral glucosamine supplementation in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide. J Anim Sci. Aug;94(8):3294-3302.
- Dechant, J. et al. (2005) Effects of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulphate, alone and in combination, on normal and interleukin-1 conditioned equine articular cartilage explant metabolism. Equine Vet J. May;37(3):227-31.
- Carden, A.N. (2013). Effects of oral glucosamine sulfate supplementation on gait parameters and blood oxidative status in the aged horse (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).
Green Lipped Mussel Extract (GLME)
Green lipped mussel extract has become popular in past years following on from work performed in dogs and cats. Since then GLME has been trialled in horses and has been shown to be beneficial in cases of arthritis. GLME contains a combination of marine omega 3 fatty acids. If used as a sole ingredient, it should be fed at a daily rate of 12.5g for a 500kg horse1.
- Cayzer, J. et al. (2012) A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of a unique extract of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) in horses with chronic fetlock lameness attributed to osteoarthritis. Equine Vet J. Jul;44(4):393-8.
Methyl-Sulfonyl-Methane is a natural ingredient used in many supplements because it has two very important properties. Firstly, MSM is a source of Sulphur. Sulphur is essential for the maintenance of repair of many structural tissues within the body like skin, hoof and cartilage. Secondly, MSM itself has anti-inflammatory properties which makes it ideal for using in problems including respiratory disease1, oxidative stress2 and joint disease.
- De Silva, M.M. et al. (2009), Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) promotes clinical and cytological improvement in horses with pulmonary inflammation – preliminary study. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association.
- Maranon, G. et al. (2008) The effect of methyl sulphonyl methane supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in sport horses following jumping exercise. Acta Vet Scand. 50(1): 45.
- Herschler, R.J. (1986) MSM: a Nutrient for the Horse. Eq. Vet. Data, 7, pp.268-269.
(Rosa canina) Commonly found in British hedgerows, Rosehips are known for the beneficial effects for managing Arthritic pain1. Rose hips are packed full of plant based anti-oxidants including flavonoids and carotenoids.
- Willich, S. et al. (2010) Rose hip herbal remedy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - a randomised controlled trial. Phytomedicine. Feb;17(2):87-93.
- Rossnagel, K. et al. (2007) The clinical effectiveness of rosehip powder in patients with osteoarthritis. A systematic review. MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 149(27-28 Suppl), pp.51-56.
- Cohen, M. (2012) Rosehip: an evidence based herbal medicine for inflammation and arthritis. Australian family physician, 41(7), p.495.
MOS & Beta-glucans
Benage, M.C. (2005) The Effect of Mannan Oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos©) on Horse Herd Health (Doctoral dissertation, West Texas A & M University).
Ott E. (2005) Influence of Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide supplement, on the immune system of the mare and neonatal foal. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, Proceedings of Alltech’s 21” Annual Symposium (T.P Lyons and K.A. Jacques, eds). Nottingham University Press, UK, pp. 447–454.
Spearman K. and Ott E. (2004) The effect of MOS supplementation on the immune response of mares and their foals. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 1): 61.
Soltanian, S. (2009) Beta-glucans as immunostimulant in vertebrates and invertebrates. Critical reviews in microbiology, 35(2), pp.109-138.
Hale, C.E. and Hemmings, A.J. Differences in dry matter digestibility (DMD) in horses supplemented with and without live yeast (NCYC Sc47), Unpublished manuscript, Royal Agricultural college, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, GL7 6LS.
Medina, B. et al. (2002) Effect of a preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on microbial profiles and fermentation patterns in the large intestine of horses fed a high fiber or a high starch diet. Journal of Animal Science, 80(10), pp.2600-2609.
Lattimer, J.M. et al. (2005). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on in vitro fermentation of a high concentrate or high fiber diet in horses. In Proceedings of the 19th Symposium of the equine Science Society, Tucson, AZ (pp. 168-173).
Mackenthun, E. et al. (2013). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 97, pp.115-120.
Niinistö, K,E. et al. (2018) Investigation of the treatment of sand accumulations in the equine large colon with psyllium and magnesium sulphate. Vet J. 2018 Aug;238:22-26.
Kaikkonen, R. et al. (2016) Comparison of psyllium feeding at home and nasogastric intubation of psyllium and magnesium sulfate in the hospital as a treatment for naturally occurring colonic sand (geosediment) accumulations in horses: a retrospective study. Acta Vet Scand. Oct 12;58(1):73.
Niinistö, K. et al. (2014) Comparison of the effects of enteral psyllium, magnesium sulphate and their combination for removal of sand from the large colon of horses. Vet J. Dec;202(3):608-11.
Hotwagner, K. and Iben, C. (2008) Evacuation of sand from the equine intestine with mineral oil, with and without psyllium. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). Feb;92(1):86-91.
Huff, N.K. et al. (2012) Effect of sea buckthorn berries and pulp in a liquid emulsion on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH in horses. J Vet Intern Med. Sep-Oct;26(5):1186-91.
Bush, J. et al. (2018) Comparison of aloe vera and omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome. Equine Vet J. Jan;50(1):34-40.
Cai, L. et al. (2017) Purification, Preliminary Characterization and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polysaccharides from Dandelion Root. Molecules. Aug 25;22(9).
Bevin, A. et al. (2009) The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day. The journal of alternative and complementary medicine Volume 15, Number 8, pp. 929–934,
Jeon, H.J. (2008) Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 115(1), pp.82-88.
Murray, R. et al. (2009) Neither age nor osteoarthritis is associated with synovial fluid antioxidant disturbance or depletion in the horse. Comparative Exercise Physiology, Volume 6, Issue 3, August pp. 121-128.
Snow, D.H. and Frigg, M. (1989) Oral administration of different formulations of ascorbic acid to the horse Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Volume 9, Issue 1, 2 January, Pages 30-33.
Deaton, C.M. et al. (2004) Antioxidant supplementation in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. J Nutr 134, 2065S-2067S.
Deaton, C.M. and Marlin, D.J. (2003) Exercise-associated oxidative stress. Clin. Tech. in Equine Practice, 2(3), 78-291.
Deaton, C. M. et al. (2004). Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 65(1): 80-87.
Deaton, C.M. (2002) Antioxidant supplementation and pulmonary function at rest and exercise. Equine Veterinary Journal, 34(S34), pp.58-65.
Deaton, C. M. et al. (2003). Pulmonary bioavailability of ascorbic acid in an ascorbate-synthesising species, the horse. Free Radic Res 37(4): 461-467.
Almeida, J. and Ball, B.A. (2005). Effect of alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol succinate on lipid peroxidation in equine spermatozoa. Anim Reprod Sci 87(3-4): 321-337.
Baalsrud, K. J. and Overnes, G. (1986). Influence of vitamin E and selenium supplement on antibody production in horses. Equine Vet J 18(6): 472-474.
Avellini, L.E. et al. (1999) Effect of exercise training, selenium and vitamin E on some free radical scavengers in horses (Equus caballus). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 123(2): 147-154.
De Moffarts, B. et al. (2007) Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses. Vet J 174(1): 113-121.